ADVERB, Adversum, in Grammar, a particle joined to a verb, adjective, or participle, to explain their manner of acting or suffering; or to mark some circumstance or quality signified by them. See PARTICLE, VERB, etc.

The word is formed from the preposition ad, and verbum; and signifies literally a diction joined to a verb, to show how, or when, or where, one is, does, or suffers: As, the boy paints neatly, writes it; the book is there, etc. Not that the adverb is confined purely to verbs; but because that is its most ordinary use—We frequently find it joined to adjectives, and sometimes even to substantives, particularly where those substantives signify an attribute, or quality of the thing spoken of, e.g. He is very sick; he acts prudently; he is truly king.

An adverb is likewise joined, sometimes to another adverb, to modify its meaning, e.g. very devoutly, etc. Whence some grammarians choose rather to call them Modificatives; comprising under this one general term, both adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and even adjectives. See MODIFICATIVE.

Adverbs are very numerous but may be reduced under the general classes of adverbs of time, of place, of order, of quantity, of quality, of manner, of affirmation, of doubting, and of comparison.